Method Effectiveness

Methods of Birth Regulation by Effectiveness

MethodPossible Side Effects% Effect-iveness Theoretical% Effect-iveness ActualContin
% Rate At
One Year
Harmful to Fertility?Who is Responsible for Use
Natural Family Planning
Creighton Model FertilityCareNone99.596.889NoMan & Woman
Ovulation MethodsNone97-9993-9865NoMan & Woman
Sympto-Thermal MethodsNone98-9996-9769NoMan & Woman
Barrier Methods
CondomAllergic reaction or irritation978863NoMan
DiaphragmAllergic reaction or irritation

Can be difficult to remove

Vaginal Spermicides* Creams, Gels, SuppositoriesAllergic reaction or irritation947943NoWoman
Sterilization Surgeries*
Tubal LigationOperations may be complicated by bleeding
and/or infection Increased rates of: hysterectomy, ectopic pregnancy, painful periods
VasectomyMay increase risk of prostate cancer99.999.8100YesMan
Intrauterine Device (IUD)*Heavy, irregular or painful menses; painful
intercourse; infection; ectopic pregnancy; perforation of uterus; infertility. Requires replacement every 5 years.
Birth Control Pills (2 hormones) * Contraceptive: suppresses ovulation (the release of the egg ). If ovulation occurs, the sperm may be prevented from reaching the egg because of thickened cervical mucus. **Abortifacient: if ovulation occurs (3-5% of cycles) and conception occurs, the “pill” acts by preventing the attachment of early human life to the uterusCommon: may delayreturn of normal fertility. Breast tenderness, breast cysts, depression, weight gain, headaches, nausea and vomiting, irregular bleeding. Rare: possible increased risk of breast cancers, liver tumors, elevated blood pressure, heart attack, blood clots, stroke99.69472May DelayWoman
Progestational Agents (one hormone)
*Contraceptive and ** Abortifacient: works like
the birth control pill, but ovulation occurs more frequently; 10-50% of cycles for Norplant and5% for Depo-Provera. Depo-Provera (injection every three months)
Delays return of fertility by an average of
nine months after last shot; irregular menses; acne; weight gain; headaches; anxiety; breast pain
Terms: Conception: Union of sperm and egg; the beginning of human life *Contraception: prevents conception **Abortifacient: agent that ends human life after conception has occurredCompiled by Peter Danis, M.D. and the American Academy of FCS Credit: St.Louis NFP Program